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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of global sample, and the reproducibility and improvement sub-samples.

From: Validation of the "World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS-2" in patients with chronic diseases

  All patients baseline, n = 1190 Stable at 6 weeks, n = 404 Improved at 3 months, n = 131
Sex, n (%)   * *
   Male 520 (43.8%) 205 (50.7%) 45 (34.4%)
   Female 666 (56.2%) 199 (49.3%) 86 (65.6%)
Age, mean (SD)    
  52.7 (15.6) 53.4 (16.0) 54.5 (14.5)
Marital status, n (%)    
   Never married 233 (20.0%) 71 (17.9%) 20 (15.6%)
   Currently married 659 (56.6%) 247 (62.4%) 68 (53.1%)
   Separated 40 (3.4%) 7 (1.8%) 4 (3.1%)
   Divorced 73 (6.3%) 22 (5.6%) 14 (10.9%)
   Widowed 92 (7.9%) 30 (7.6%) 14 (10.9%)
   Cohabiting 68 (5.8%) 19 (4.8%) 8 (6.3%)
Highest level of education, n (%)   *  
   No formal schooling 4 (0.4%) 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.8%)
   Less than primary school 28 (2.5%) 5 (1.3%) 4 (3.2%)
   Primary school completed 241 (21.9%) 90 (22.8%) 39 (31.5%)
   Secondary school completed 256 (23.2%) 106 (26.9%) 39 (31.5%)
   High school (or equivalent) completed 281 (25.5%) 108 (27.4%) 16 (12.9%)
   College/University completed 266 (24.1%) 79 (20.1%) 23 (18.5%)
   Postgraduate degree completed 26 (2.4%) 5 (1.3%) 2 (1.6%)
Current job, n (%)   *  
   Government employee 132 (11.5%) 43 (11.1%) 20 (15.4%)
   Non-government employee 221 (19.3%) 69 (17.8%) 26 (20.0%)
   Self-employed 99 (8.6%) 37 (9.6%) 13 (10.0%)
   Employer 32 (2.8%) 11 (2.8%) 2 (1.5%)
   Not working for pay 663 (57.8%) 227 (58.7%) 69 (53.1%)
Health conditions, n (%)   *  
   Bipolar 114 (9.6%) 4 (1.0%) ---
   Depression 83 (7.0%) 15 (3.7%) 19 (14.5%)
Musculo-skeletal conditions 297 (25.0%) 57 (14.1%) 27 (20.6%)
Osteoarthritis 19 (1.6%) --- ---
Osteoporosis 87 (7.3%) 17 (29.8%) 4 (14.8%)
Rheumatoid Arthritis 24 (2.0%) 11 (19.3%) 3 (11.1%)
Chronic Widespread Pain (CWP) 49 (4.1%) 12 (21.1%) 9 (33.3%)
Low Back Pain (LBP) 118 (9.9%) 17 (29.8%) 11 (40.7%)
   Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) 100 (8.4%) 76 (18.8%) 12 (9.2%)
   Migraine 102 (8.6%) --- 28 (21.4%)
   Parkinson Disease 96 (8.1%) 48 (12.4%) ---
   Multiple-Sclerosis 100 (8.4%) 37 (9.2%) ---
   Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 100 (8.4%) 50 (12.4%) 1 (0.8%)
   Stroke 198 (16.6%) 67 (16.6%) 44 (33.6%)
  1. * p < 0.05 (between the distribution of patients included and not included on that sub-sample)
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