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Table 5 Least square means of EQ-5D index score by the degree of multimorbidity and socioeconomic status

From: Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life in Koreans aged 50 or older using KNHANES 2013–2014

  50 and older 65 and older
Total Male Female Total Male Female
Number of chronic conditions
 0 (reference) 0.94 (0.93–0.95) 0.96 (0.95–0.96) 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 0.93 (0.91–0.95) 0.83 (0.79–0.86)
 1 0.90 (0.89–0.91)* 0.92 (0.91–0.94)* 0.88 (0.86–0.89)* 0.86 (0.84–0.88) 0.89 (0.87–0.92)* 0.83 (0.80–0.85)
 2 0.87 (0.85–0.88)* 0.90 (0.87–0.92)* 0.85 (0.84–0.87)* 0.83 (0.80–0.85)* 0.86 (0.82–0.91)* 0.81 (0.78–0.84)
 3 0.81 (0.78–0.84)* 0.84 (0.79–0.90)* 0.79 (0.76–0.82)* 0.77 (0.73–0.82)* 0.80 (0.70–0.91)* 0.76 (0.72–0.80)*
 4+ 0.71 (0.67–0.75)* 0.78 (0.72–0.84)* 0.68 (0.63–0.73)* 0.69 (0.64–0.74)* 0.76 (0.68–0.84)* 0.67 (0.61–0.73)*
Marital status
 Married (reference) 0.92 (0.91–0.92) 0.93 (0.92–0.94) 0.90 (0.89–0.91) 0.86 (0.85–0.88) 0.89 (0.87–0.91) 0.83 (0.81–0.85)
 Unmarried 0.81 (0.80–0.83)* 0.87 (0.84–0.90)* 0.80 (0.78–0.82)* 0.78 (0.75–0.80)* 0.85 (0.81–0.90) 0.77 (0.74–0.79)*
Education
 High (reference) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 0.92 (0.90–0.94) 0.92 (0.91–0.94) 0.91 (0.88–0.94)
 Low 0.88 (0.87–0.89)* 0.92 (0.91–0.93)* 0.86 (0.85–0.87)* 0.82 (0.80–0.83)* 0.87 (0.85–0.89)* 0.79 (0.77–0.81)*
Household income
 Quartile 4 (reference) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.93 (0.92–0.94) 0.90 (0.88–0.93) 0.94 (0.92–0.96) 0.87 (0.83–0.91)
 Quartile 3 0.93 (0.93–0.94)* 0.96 (0.95–0.96)* 0.91 (0.90–0.92)* 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 0.92 (0.90–0.94) 0.84 (0.81–0.87)
 Quartile 2 0.90 (0.89–0.91)* 0.93 (0.91–0.94)* 0.87 (0.86–0.89)* 0.86 (0.83–0.90)* 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.82 (0.79–0.84)*
 Quartile 1 0.81 (0.79–0.83)* 0.84 (0.82–0.87)* 0.79 (0.77–0.81)* 0.79 (0.77–0.81)* 0.84 (0.81–0.87)* 0.76 (0.74–0.79)*
Basic livelihood security recipients
 No (reference) 0.90 (0.90–0.91) 0.93 (0.92–0.94) 0.88 (0.87–0.89) 0.85 (0.83–0.86) 0.89 (0.87–0.91) 0.81 (0.80–0.83)
 Yes 0.72 (0.68–0.76)* 0.78 (0.73–0.83)* 0.68 (0.62–0.75)* 0.67 (0.61–0.74)* 0.79 (0.71–0.87)* 0.63 (0.56–0.72)*
Occupation
 White-collar (reference) 0.97 (0.96–0.97) 0.97 (0.97–0.98) 0.95 (0.94–0.97) 0.95 (0.92–0.97) 0.95 (0.92–0.97) 0.93 (0.88–0.99)
 Blue-collar 0.93 (0.92–0.94)* 0.95 (0.95–0.96)* 0.91 (0.89–0.92)* 0.88 (0.86–0.89)* 0.92 (0.90–0.93)* 0.84 (0.82–0.86)*
 Unemployed 0.84 (0.83–0.86)* 0.86 (0.84–0.89)* 0.84 (0.82–0.85)* 0.81 (0.79–0.83)* 0.86 (0.83–0.89)* 0.78 (0.76–0.80)*
  1. EQ-5D index score was presented as geometric mean (95% CI)
  2. *p < 0.05 compared to reference group